ijsri journal

International Journal of Social Research and Innovation (IJSRI) is a peer-reviewed multidisciplinary international journal published annually by Villa College, Maldives, with the aim of encouraging research and innovation in various fields. We publish original and high-quality articles covering a wide range of topics in multidisciplinary research-based areas.

Past issues of the journal are available here

Volume 2 Issue 1

Table of Contents

Effects of Supply Chain Practice, Competence and Concern on Supply Chain Performance: A study of Small and Medium Enterprises in India
Subburaj Alagarsamy

Factors That Influence Writing in English Language Classrooms: A Case Study of a Secondary School in the Maldives
Fathimath Ibna

Perceptions of Ageing Among Older Adults Living in Male’, Maldives and Implications for Provision of Support
Aishath Nazra

Under-preparedness of Teachers to Teach Life Skills Education in the National Curriculum
Hidaya Mohamed Zahir

Challenges in Regulating Quality Assurance in Higher Education in Small States: A Case Study of the Maldives
Abdul Hannan Waheed

Editorial Preface

It gives us great pleasure to deliver to you the first issue of the second volume of International Journal of Social Research and Innovation (IJSRI), published by Villa College, Maldives. We have established this journal to serve the needs of promising new researchers and other varied professionals and scholarly communities to publish research which provides insights into issues that are of concern to them, thus, broadening access to the discipline of social sciences research to a wider audience. We use double blind peer review by two colleagues to support researchers. Through the peer review process we promote practice of theoretical sophistication and rigour in social sciences research. We are indebted to our peer reviewers who have provided extensive support to these emerging researchers. Their level of responsiveness is exemplary despite heavy academic workloads and tight deadlines within which they had to give feedback. We are epistemologically inclusive, as can be seen in this first issue, and as we plan our second and subsequent issues. In this issue, five researchers new to the field of research publication share their research. Small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) represent a large proportion of businesses worldwide. They are critical to developing countries like India where the wealth gap is immense. They provide jobs, skills and services to a large number of people. However, knowing how to improve productivity and drive down costs as well as ability to develop and manage supply chain practices are crucial to any SME’s long term survival. Subburaj Alagarsamy examines the dimensions of supply chain management components and their relationship to supply chain performance in SMEs of Madurai District of Tamil Nadu. Whilst supply chain concerns were rated most highly by the managers of these SMEs as significant for supply chain management, design of low-pollution production processes and low-pollution delivering processes are significant supply chain competencies rated highly by SMEs. This can positively support the district with development of green entrepreneurship and leadership in green business processes and technologies. Modern higher education and employment demand fluency in writing in English. Fathimath Ibna utilises social cognitive theory and self-efficacy beliefs to analyse the processes through which inhibition to write emerges within secondary classrooms. Since self-efficacy affects children’s motivation, interest and level of attainment, she identifies strategies to develop a sense of competence and confidence in English language writing which children can transfer to other areas of learning within school and beyond. Life Skills Education is emerging as a fundamental right of all children to prepare them to cope with the extraordinary changes the world is undergoing. Hidhaya Zahir questions the level of teacher preparedness to teach life skills while highlighting the importance of life skills education, as well as the challenges teachers face in implementing life skills curriculum. Regulation and governance of higher education can be perplexing even for academics whose work is based on rigour, independence of thought and the search to push the boundaries of knowledge. Hannan Waheed’s paper on regulation of higher education in the Maldives examines the complexity of creating better, fairer, efficient and transparent systems of quality assurance in higher education, from the perspective of a small state with a newly emerging higher education sector. We invite researchers from disciplines across social sciences to publish with us. We provide a supportive platform for researchers to publish research on challenging issues confronting our children, youth, adults, parents and communities in the modern era.

Dr. Mohamed Adil
Dr. Sheema Saeed
Dr. Ahmed Shahid
Editors of IJSRI, Villa College

Editorial Board

  • Executive Editor: Dr. Mohamed Adil, Villa College, Maldives
  • Managing Editor: Dr. Sheema Saeed, Villa College, Maldives
  • Senior Editor: Dr. Ahmed Shahid, Villa College, Maldives
Editorial Board
  • Dr. Ahsan Ahmed Jaleel, Villa College, Maldives
  • Dr. Ali Najeeb, Villa College, Maldives
  • Dr. Aminath Shafiya Adam, Maldives National University, Maldives
  • Dr. Ahmed Ali Didi, Villa College, Maldives
  • Dr. Huseyin Dogan, University of Bournemouth, UK
  • Abdul Wahid Ibrahim, Villa College, Maldives
  • Dr. Byju K. P. Madhavan, Villa College, Maldives
  • Dr. Abdulla Sadig, Villa College, Maldives
  • Ahmed Yasir, Villa College, Maldives



Supply chain management (SCM) practices have become a key determinant of competitive advantage of business enterprises. Effectively carried out supply chain management practices provide a strategic improvement to supply chain performance and thereby increases the performance of companies. The present study examines the dimensions of supply chain management components (practices, competences, and concerns) and their relationship to supply chain performance. Data was collected from 250 medium and small enterprises of Madurai District in Tamil Nadu, between December 2016 and July 2017. The enterprises were selected using simple random sampling. The relationship between supply chain management components and supply chain performance was investigated using structural equation modeling. The resulting model indicated that supply chain management practices, competence, and concerns have a direct, positive impact on supply chain performance. Recommendations for improving operational capability are provided accordingly.



The research presented in this paper focused on studying the factors that influence writing in English among a group of secondary school students in Male’, Maldives. Face-to-face interviews and a self-administered questionnaire were employed for data collection. The findings revealed that motivational factors such as self-efficacy, interest, and attitude of students affected students’ performance in writing. Also, subject knowledge, composition skills, and the context of writing such as time allocation, classroom setting, and examination oriented teaching were primary factors which hindered students’ writing. These factors which hinder students to write are blended with research on self-efficacy to discuss strategies to develop competence and confidence in writing among adolescents struggling with writing in a second language.



The research presented in this paper aims to (1) provide insights into how older people living in Male’ perceive ageing and (2) how families and the wider community meet the care needs of older people. Eight people who are in the age group of 65 to 70 year olds, living in Male’, were interviewed for the present study. The results indicated that the participants preferred to live with their children and appreciated the level of care given by their children. Lack of modified homes, adapted built environments and suitable housing for families living with elderly parents means that healthy older adults’ level of physical activities, social interaction and independence are limited. Unavailability of environmental, social and health support services that are dedicated towards elders negatively influenced their perspective of ageing. While some of the participants showed resilience and adapted to the circumstances, others perceived the physical and social barriers to ageing with fear and restricted their physical activities and social interactions.

Important aspects of ageing and the availability of support are discussed with implications for self, family, community and for policy makers.



Modernisation and urbanisation has come at a cost to Maldivian children, making them more vulnerable to social ills and psychological diseases. Life Skills Education (LSE) has been integrated into the 2014 Maldives National Curriculum as a way to avert the emotional and psychological crises of children growing up in a rapidly changing society. Rather than questioning how this new initiative is introduced within the curriculum and the possible outcomes of the initiative, this paper aims to explore how knowledgeable and prepared the teachers believe they are to teach Life Skills to children.

A cross sectional survey was completed by 186 teachers of two schools of Male’, Maldives. Life Skills Education has been taught in some form in both schools since 2004. Four factors linked to teacher preparedness were analysed, namely: (1) teachers’ attitude to LSE; (2) teachers’ motivation to implement LSE; (3) teachers’ perceived professional mastery; and (4) participation in ongoing professional development, all of which have direct impact on successful implementation of Life Skills Education. All four factors have strong correlation to successful implementation of Life Skills Education. Only 13% of the teachers in this study indicated that they believed they had the capacity to deliver Life Skills Education in the curriculum fully.

This study identified the urgent need for LSE to be incorporated into initial teacher training and for policy makers and school leaders to ensure that teachers have ongoing effective support to develop life skills of vulnerable children who live in challenging home environments.



This paper presents findings of a case study of the regulatory framework of quality assurance (QA) in higher education in the Maldives. For this study, a systems approach was adopted to capture a holistic perspective of the various key elements and their relationships to each other to investigate the effectiveness of the regulatory framework in the quality assurance system. The data collection consisted of document analysis and interviews with four key stakeholder groups. Some of the unique challenges in developing and establishing a fully-functioning regulatory mechanism of quality assurance for higher education in the Maldives include lack of independence of the system from the Ministry of Education and influence of other key stakeholders on the decision making process of the quality assurance system. Absence of a legal mandate to ensure that outcomes of regulatory processes are accepted by the government, the public and the higher education system is unique to the Maldives where the quality assurance system has been in operation since 2010, while it holds no legal status or independence. Whilst the case study is situated in the Maldives, it provides a useful reference for policy makers, practitioners and professionals in other small states.